Comparison of longitudinal changes in clinical periodontal parameters of canines and first molars treated with fixed orthodontic appliances

Introduction: Our objective was to learn the possible effects of fixed orthodontic therapy on the periodontium of the extraction sites adjacent to canines and first molars. This was a prospective cohort study. Methods: Sixtytwo systemically healthy subjects were selected. The study was divided into the period of oral hygiene instructions and the period of active orthodontic treatment. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded for the canines and first molars at baseline, after 1 month of orthodontic therapy, and every 3 months until the completion of the orthodontic treatment. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in all clinical parameters (plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and attachment loss; P\0.05) on the first molars compared with the canines. Significant increases in attachment loss were noted in both the canines (baseline, 0.06 6 0.01 mm; end of treatment, 0.17 6 0.02 mm) and the molars (baseline, 0.07 6 0.01 mm; end of treatment, 0.20 6 0.02 mm). Conclusions: Attachment loss cannot be explained solely by the effect of plaque or the banding of teeth. Other factors such as tooth extractions adjacent to the canines, tooth movement, and occlusal trauma may have contributing roles in the loss of periodontal support in adolescent patients. (Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2016;149:325-30)

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