Forces and moments applied during derotation of a maxillary central incisor with thinner aligners: An in-vitro study
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017;151:407-15
Recent studies have shown that therapeutic loads applied to individual teeth by aligners may substantially exceed recommended values. The primary purpose of this study was to quantify force and moment components during derotation of a maxillary central incisor when 0.3-mm-thick or 0.4-mm-thick polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners were used instead of conventional polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners with a minimum thickness of 0.5 mm. Methods: The test setup consisted of an acrylic model of a maxilla with a separated right central incisor mounted on a 3-dimensional force and moment sensor. The force and moment components were recorded for aligners with thicknesses ranging from 0.3 to 0.75 mm during 610 rotation and derotation of the separated incisor. Results: Moments exerted by the thinnest aligner currently available, 0.5 mm, were 73.57 Nmm for the 10 mesiorotation. In comparison, the corresponding moments with the 0.4-mm and 0.3-mm aligners were 41.08 and 17.84 Nmm, respectively. Moment values for derotation of the maxillary right central incisor into neutral position showed nonlinear return curves indicating viscoelastic material behavior. Conclusions: A significant load reduction can be achieved with the new thinner aligners. Because of the form instability of the 0.3-mm aligner during handling, we suggest the novel sequence 0.4, 0.5, and 0.75 mm for aligner systems based on sequentially increased material thickness. This sequence combines sufficiently low initial aligner stiffness and steady load increases in single setup steps. The viscoelastic behavior of polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners observed during incisor derotation should lead to a reduction of the high initial load exerted directly after intraoral aligner insertion.