Relationship between dental crowding and mandibular incisor proclination during orthodontic treatment without extraction of permanent mandibular teeth

: To examine changes in mandibular incisor proclination and protrusion resulting from alleviation of crowding. Materials and Methods: Records of 96 patients from a private practice treated without extractions or interproximal enamel reduction in the mandibular arch were included. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms and models were examined to determine changes in incisor proclination, protrusion and crowding.

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