T-loop force system with and without vertical step using finite element analysis

: To investigate the effect of vertical steps on a T-loop force system at three interbracket distances (IBDs) and their association with V-bends. Materials and Methods: Loop response during simulated loop pulling was determined for 18 T-loop configurations (6-, 9-, and 12-mm IBD with a 2.5-mm canine bracket (CB) end and 0- (plain), 0.5-, or 1-mm vertical step)

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