Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017;151:118-31
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the orientation of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images on the precision and reliability of 3-dimensional cephalometric landmark identification. Methods: Ten CBCT scans were used for manual landmark identification. Volume-rendered images were oriented by aligning the Frankfort horizontal and transorbital planes horizontally, and the midsagittal plane vertically. A total of 20 CBCT images (10 as-received and 10 oriented) were anonymized, and 3 random sets were generated for manual landmark plotting by 3 expert orthodontists. Twenty-five landmarks were identified for plotting on each anonymized image independently. Hence, a total of 60 images were marked by the orthodontists. After landmark plotting, the randomized samples were decoded and regrouped into as-received and oriented data sets for analysis and comparison. Means and standard deviations of the x-, y-, and z-axis coordinates were calculated for each landmark to measure the central tendency. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to analyze the interobserver reliability of landmark plotting in the 3 axes in both situations. Paired t tests were applied on the mean Euclidean distance computed separately for each landmark to evaluate the effect of 3-dimensional image orientation.